Trade pacts are often politically controversial because they can change economic practices and deepen interdependence with trading partners. Improving efficiency through “free trade” is a common goal. Most governments support other trade agreements. Economists have tried to assess the extent to which free trade agreements can be considered public goods. First, they deal with a key element of free trade agreements, the system of on-board tribunals, which act as arbiters in international trade disputes. These serve as a clarification of existing statutes and international economic policies, as confirmed by trade agreements.  The following alternatives to free trade have been proposed: protectionism, imperialism [failed review] of balanced trade, fair trade, [necessary quotation] and industrial policy. [Citation required] The literature that analyzes the free trade economy is rich. Economists have done important work on the theoretical and empirical effects of free trade. Although it produces winners and losers, the broad consensus among economists is that free trade represents a net benefit to society.   In a 2006 survey of U.S. economists (83 respondents), “87.5% agreed that the United States should eliminate tariffs and other trade barriers” and “90.1% disagree with the proposition that the United States should prevent employers from relocating their work abroad.”  Democratic candidate Bernie Sanders, who opposed the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade agreement, called it “the continuation of other catastrophic trade agreements such as NAFTA, CAFTA and normal, sustainable trade relations with China.” He believes that free trade agreements have led to the loss of American jobs and lower U.S. wages.
Sanders said America needs to rebuild its production base with U.S. factories for well-paying jobs for the U.S. workforce, instead of relocating to China and elsewhere.    Trade agreements designated by the WTO as preferential agreements are also referred to as regional agreements (RTRs), although they are not necessarily concluded by countries within a given region. Currently, 205 agreements are in effect as of July 2007. More than 300 people have been notified to the WTO.  The number of free trade agreements has increased significantly over the past decade. Between 1948 and 1994, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), predecessor to the WTO, received 124 notifications. Since 1995, more than 300 trade agreements have been concluded.
 According to Chad P. Bown (Senior Fellow at the Peterson Institute for International Economics), a renegotiated NAFTA, which would restore trade barriers, would help workers who have lost their jobs, regardless of their cause, to use new employment opportunities.”  A Chapter 19 panel should consider whether the Agency`s decision was supported by “substantial evidence.” This standard was a considerable tribute to the national agency. Some of the most contentious trade disputes in recent years, such as the U.S.-Canada dispute over conifers, were negotiated ahead of chapter 19 panels. Studies show that support for trade restrictions is highest among those with the lowest level of education.  Hainmueller and Hiscox find several supporters of economic nationalism and the school of mercantilism who have long presented free trade as a form of colonialism or imperialism. In the 19th century, such groups criticized British demands for free trade as cover for the British Empire, particularly in the works of the American Henry Clay, architect of the American system and the German-American economist Friedrich List (1789-1846).  There are a large number of trade agreements; some are quite complex (the European Union), while others are less intense (North American free trade agreement).  The degree of economic integration that has